We will not go into details here but just have an overview how melody, harmony and rhythm are called in Indian Music. Though sometimes it cannot be translated exactly translated one to one and even in India the interpretation of Raaga and Taal are not same throughout the country.
The seven notes or "swar" of the scale are Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni. (This is same as Do, Re, Me, Fa, So, La, Te in western classical music). This is also known as sargam. These swar (notes) are used to make scale known as "saptak"
Search for these terms to get basic understanding and understand them in context
A comphrensive list of raagas can be found at
A list of hindi movie songs with corresponding raaga